:: Ahlan wa Sahlan wa Marhaban Bikum ::

Wednesday, May 26, 2010

Revision

1.Causes of hypertension?

I CHECK A BP
  • I-Idiopathic
  • C-CNS disorders
  • H-High-output states
  • E-Endocrine disorders
  • C-Coartation of aorta
  • K-Kidney disease
  • A-Acute stress
  • B-Birth control pills
  • P-Pregnancy
2. Stigmata of infective endocarditis?
  • Osler's node
  • Janeway lesion
  • Clubbing
  • Splinter haemorrhages
  • Roth's spot
  • Splenomegaly
3. Stigmata of chronic liver disease?

  • Clubbing
  • Leukonychia (whitish nail)
  • Duputytren's contracture
  • Palmar erythema
  • Spider naevi
  • Gynaecomastia
  • Alopecia
  • Jaundice
4. Causes of chronic liver disease?
  • chronic alcohol ingestion
  • viral hepatitis (HBV, HCV)
  • drugs-methyldopa, methotrexate
  • autoimmune hepatitis
  • primary biliary cirrhosis
  • Wilson's disease
  • cryptogenic
5. Signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis?
  • tachycardia
  • atrial fibrillation
  • fine tremor
  • lid lag
  • exophtalmus
  • throid bruit
6. Clinical features of Cushing's syndrome?

  • truncal obesity
  • moon face
  • buffalo hump
  • purple striae
  • muscular wasting
  • polythaemia
  • glucosuria
  • osteoporosis
  • HPT
  • whitish spot candidiasis (oral corticosteroid)
  • lower limb oedema
  • bad wound healing
  • hirsuitism
7. Bell's palsy?
  • cannot close eye
  • cannot smile
  • drooling of saliva at the corner of lip
  • difficult to masticate
  • loss of nasolabial fold
  • dropping mouth
  • forehead line lost
8. Signs of IDA?
  • koilonychia (spoon shaped)
  • angular cheilitis + glossitis
  • pallor mucous membrane + conjuctiva
  • tachycardia
  • collapsing pulse
  • systolic flow murmur
  • palpitations
9. Murmurs?
  • pansystolic-MR, TR, VSD
  • midsystolic- AS, PS, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • late systolic-mitral valve prolapse, papillary muscle dysfunction
  • early diastolic- AR, PR
  • mid diastolic- MS, TS, atrial myxoma
10. Causes of chronic renal failure?
  • glomerulonephritis
  • diabetes mellitus
  • hypertension
  • pyelonephritis
  • polycystic kidney disease
11. Features of SLE?
  • oral ulcers
  • malar rash
  • discoid rash
  • exaggerated photosensitivity
  • proteinuria
  • hemolysis
  • leuko/thrombocytopenia
  • pleuritis
  • pericarditis
  • non-erosive arthritis
  • seizures
  • drugs (analgesic nephropathy)
12. Causes of hypothyroidism?

  • destruction: surgery, radioiodine
  • drugs: thionamides, lithium
  • enzyme deficiency: dyshormonogenesis
  • autoimmune thyroiditis
  • hypothalamic-pituitary disorders
13. Causes of atrial fibrillation?


I HAVE A FIB
I-Ischemic heart disease
H-Hyperthyroidism
A-Acute pericarditis
V-Valvular heart disease
E-Embolus
A-Atrial septal defect
F-Failure
I-Infection
B-Booze

14. Symptoms of dengue fever?

15. Causes of hepatomegaly?
Infective: Hep. A,B,C,E, infectious mononucleosis, abscess, TB, syphillis, brucellosis, leptospirosis, malaria, toxoplasmosis.
Hematological : leukemia, lymphoma, chronic myeloid leukemia, myelofibrosis.
Neoplasm: primary and secondary tumour.
Metabolic: fatty liver, amyloidosis

1 comment:

Dr Arif said...

Salam.. JZKK.. Sedikit sebanyak membantu ana dlm exam final MD.. Semoga ALLAH merahmati..

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