:: Ahlan wa Sahlan wa Marhaban Bikum ::

Tuesday, April 14, 2009

Entri Study: Pharmacology 2

Bismillahirrahmanirrahiim...ya Allah terangilah hatiku...

A continuation from the previous entry...

Drugs acting at the muscarinic receptors:
(muscarinic receptors located in the organs innervated by the PNS,thermoregulatory sweat glands innervated by the SNS,cortex and hippocampus)

Usage rational: to increase gut motility,to treat urinary retention, to treat glaucoma, to slow the heart down 

agonists: 
-synthetic choline esters & derivatives : carbachol, bethanecol, methacoline
-cholinomimetic alkaloids: pilocarpine, muscarine, arecholine

antagonists:
-atropine, scopolamine (hyoscine)

Drugs acting at the adrenergic receptors:
noradrenaline, adrenaline, isoprenaline, phenylephrine

OPIODS

Strong agonists: phenantrenes(morphine), phenylheptylamines(methadone), phenylpepiridines(meperidine, fentanyl).

Mild to moderate agonists: phenantrenes (codeine), phenylheptylamines, phenylpiperidines (diphenoxylate, loperamide)

Mixed agonist-antagonists and partial agonists: phenantrenes(nalbuphine, bupronorphine), benzomorphans(pentazocine, dezocine)

Miscellaneous: tramadol,antitussives

Antagonists: naloxone,naltrexone & nalmefene


Cardiac glycosides: 

1) Digoxin -lanoxin
2) Digitoxin- crytodigin
3) Delanoside-cedilanid
4) Ouabain

Heart failure: 
Treatment; 
1) inotropes: digoxin
2) diuretics: frusemide, spironolactone
3) ACE inhibitor: captopril
4) Vasodilator : hydralazine
5) Beta blocker: carvedilol

~ KALAU TAK DAPAT INGAT SEMUA, JANGAN TINGGALKAN SEMUA~

5 comments:

ami mahzar said...

ade x ubat utk malas ke, ngantok ke...

sronok tgk citer HoUsE kt channel 701..espesyelli time dia brainstorm penyakit tu...

Muslimahsolehah said...

wah..byk ilmu yg boleh dimanfaatkan bersama..syukran

Azan Subuh said...

to kak ami mahzar:

utk ubat penyakit malas dan ngantuk saya x belajar lagi kak,dalam pharmacology :p

tp boleh amal doa ni:
"allahumma inni 'auzubika minal 'ajzi wal kasal..."..insya Allah.mudah2an berkesan :)

to kak muslimah solehah:

terpaksa kak, isi blog dengan ilmu2 belajar bila nak dekat exam, hopefully senang sikit nak ingat dgn cara baru ni..:)

ami mahzar said...

ya..alhamdulillah. shukran..doa tu juga elok utk mengelakkan hutang n musibah lain..ada kalanya diri lupa..

Azan Subuh said...

betul kak...terima kasih juga.

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