:: Ahlan wa Sahlan wa Marhaban Bikum ::

Friday, April 24, 2009

Human Diseases


(A summary)

The human body consists of 10 systems:

Integumentary (kulit), Musculoskeletal (otot&skeleton), Nervous (Saraf), Reproductive(Pembiakan), Digestive (Pencernaan), Respiratory (Pernafasan),Hematopoietic (Pembentukan sel darah), Endocrine (Hormon), Renal (Perkumuhan-ginjal), Cardiovascular (Jantung & salur darah).

Formula: I am(M) Nervous Reproducing DR.HER Card (thanks to Dr. Ungku Chulan for this formula).

Important diseases according to the systems:



Arthritis:inflammation of a joint/joints which cause pain, stiffness and limitation of motion.

-rheumatoid arthritis: a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder that affected many tissue and organs, producing a nonsuppurative proliferative and inflammatory synovitis that often progress to destruction of the articular cartilage and ankylosis of the joint.

-juvenile rheumatoid arthritis:under 16 years

-osteoarthritis: a progressive erosion of articular cartilage principally affecting weight bearing joint(hips, knee, lower lumbar, cervical vertebrae, proximal and distal phalangeal joint).

Metabolic bone diseases:

-osteoporosis: reduction in bone density due to an imbalance between deposition and resorption rate.

-osteomalacia: failure of mineralization because of lack of calcium.

-parathyroid bone disease: the resorption of calcium bone by increasing osteoclastic activity.

-Paget's disease: excessive resorption of bone by abnormal large osteoclasts, may be related with paramyxovirus.

-renal osteodystrophy: combination of features seen in bone (excessive bone erosion and failure of mineralization of osteoid) that are related to chronic renal failure. 

Neoplasms of bone:

-osteosarcoma: primary malignant tumour of mesenchymal cells, characterized by direct formation of osteoid or bone by tumour cells.

-chondrosarcoma: malignant tumour of the cartilage in patients between 30-60 years.

-Giant cell tumour(osteoclastoma): presence of multinucleated giant cells scattered throughout a stroma of mononuclear stromal cells.

-Ewing sarcoma:highly malignant tumour of bone which arises in children and adolescent, also associated with cytogenetic abnormalities.

Osteomyelitis:inflammation of bone and marrow


-Alzheimer's disease:a progressive, neurodegenerative disease that occurs in the brain.

-Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis(ALS): a terminal neurological disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of nerve cells in the spinal cord and brain.

-Bell's palsy: an unexplained episode of facial muscle weakness or paralysis that begins suddenly and worsens over three to five days.

-Epilepsy and seizures
 Partial seizures: abnormal elecrical brain function occurs in one or more areas of one side of the    brain.
 generalized seizures:involve both sides of brain.  



Dysphagia:difficulty in swallowing

Diseases of esophagus
-congenital: atresia and fistula
-esophageal webs: ledgelike protrusions of the mucosa into the esophageal lumen.
-esophageal ring:concentric, smooth, thin extension of normal esophagus.
-esophagial diverticula:a sac or pouch arising from the esophagus.
-achalasia:persistent contraction of lower esophagus.
-esophagitis: inflammation of the esophageal mucosa.
-esophageal varices: dilation of submucosal esophagus.
-Mallory Weiss: bleeding from tears in the mucosa at the junction of the esophagus and stomach due to severe retching.
-carcinoma of esophagus:squamous papilloma, leiomyoma, fibroma, lipoma, carcinoid tumour, malignant melanoma.

Diseases of the stomach:

-pyloric stenosis:congenital, caused by hypertrophy of the muscle layer of the pylorus resulting in the palpable mass causing gastric outlet obstruction and projectile vomiting.
-gastritis: inflammation of gastric mucosa
-peptic ulcer: gastric ulcer(antrum of stomach), duodenal ulcer (1st part of duodenum)
-tumour of stomach:gastric carcinoma(most), lymphoma, carcinoids, GIST

Lesions of intestines

-polyps:tubular(pedunculated)/ villous(sessile)/ tubulovillous 
-colorectal carcinoma
-carcinoid tumour


-anemia: a reduction in the oxyegen-transporting capacity of blood.
-thrombocytopenia: a reduction in the peripheral blood platelet count below the lower limit of 150,000/cumm.
-hemophilia: a group of congenital coagulation disorders leading to an abnormal bleeding tendency due to genetically determined sex linked recessive defect.


Adrenal cortex:
Adrenal hyperfunction: 
-hyperaldosteronism= Conn's syndrome
-hypercorticolism= Cushing's syndrome

Adrenal hypofunction:
-Addison's disease

Adrenal medulla:
1) Neuroblastoma: a maligant tumour composed of neuroblastoma.
2) Pheochromocytoma: a benign, solitary tumour originating from the medulla.

-hyperactive multinodular goiter
-Grave's disease:an autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies to the TSH receptor on the surface of the thyroid follicular cells.
-thyroid neoplasms




Pulmonary tuberculosis: caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis

Pneumonia:any infection of the lung parenchyma.

-bacterial pneumonia: bacterial invasion of the lung parenchyma evoking an exudative solidification of the lung parenchyma.
-bronchopneumonia:patchy consolidation of the lung.
-lobar pneumonia:acute bacterial infection of a large portion of a lobe or entire lobe of lung.
-aspiration pneumonia: occurs in markedly debilitated patients or those who apirate gastric contents either while unconcious or during repeated vomiting.
Chronic obstructive airway diseases:

-emphysema: a condition of lung characterized by abnormal permanent enlargement of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles accompanied by  destruction of the walls, without obvious fibrosis.

-chronic bronchitis:any patient who has persistent cough with sputum production for at least 3 months in at least 2 consecutive years.

-bronchial asthma:a disease characterized by increased responsiveness of tranchiobronchial tree to various stimuli, potentiating the paroxysmal constriction of the bronchial airways.
-bronchiectasis:a chronic necrotizing infection of the bronchi and bronchioles leading to or associated with abnormal dilatation of these airways.

-Lung cancer: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolarcinoma, large cell carcinoma,small cell carcinoma, carcioid tumor, metastatic tumors

-Lung abscess: a local suppurative process within the lung, characterized by necrosis of lung tissue.


-Ischemic heart disease:a group of closely related syndromes resulting from imbalance between the supply and demand of the heart for oxygenated blood. 

1)angina pectoris: pain originating in chest and radiating to left shoulder.
2)myocardial infarction:coagulative necrosis of part of myocardium due to abrupt decrease in coronary blood flow following a complete thrombotic occlusion of artery previously narrowed by atherosclerosis. 
3)chronic ischemic heart disease
4)sudden cardiac death:unexpected death from cardiac causes early after or without onset of symptoms.

-Cardiac myopathies: diseases of the myocardium associated with cardiac dysfunction.

-Arteriosclerosis: a group of disorders that have in common thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls.

1)atherosclerosis:characterized by intimal lesion called atheroma which protrude into and obstruct vascular lumen and weaken the underlying media.
2)Monckeberg's@ medial calcific sclerosis: characterized by ring like calcifications within the media of medium-sized to small arteries.


Gha said...

Selamatt hari jumaat..

.:wan~nur:. said...


Apa beza osteoarthritis ngan rheumatoid?

Shahibul Afzan Wahab said...

To G-ha:

Selamat hari jumaat G-ha.tapi sekarang ni dah masuk hari ahad...maaf lambat reply.insya Allah selamat setiap hari,amiinn...

To 'Izzatulfadilah:

Waalaikumussalam adik,

mengikut apa yg kami pelajari, rheumatoid arthritis adalah penyakit yg disebabkan oleh immune response di dalam badan ke atas arthritogenic antigens.Jadi T-cells diaktifkan dan menyebabkan cytokines (e.g TNF) dihasilkan,yg seterusnya mengaktifkan macrophages dan B-cells.Ini akan menyebabkan inflammation pada synovial membrane dekat joints. Joints akan bengkak, keras dan sakit.Seterusnya tulang akan bercantum dengan tulang lagi satu pada sendi(ankylosis).

osteoarthritis pula adalah penyakit yg biasa menimpa golongan tua, sebab 'wear and tear'.tulang rawan (cartilage) dekat sendi akan degenerate(terhakis).Mereka akan sakit bila buat pergerakan akibat tulang yg bergeser.

Terima kasih adik kerana bertanya. Boleh rujuk semula entri tersebut kerana akak dah letak gambar.

.:wan~nur:. said...

Ooh...Tak paham sangat sebab tak blajar lagi. Tapi hari tu ada group yg present sal OA. Tak sempat tanya diorang ari tuh.

Hmm...Yang mana lagi kronik nih?

Shahibul Afzan Wahab said...

xpe,nanti belajar insyaAllah faham...em,boleh kata semua penyakit2 kat sini yg agak kronik semuanya...

dkama said...

suka la blog ni... unik sgt2...

Shahibul Afzan Wahab said...

biasa saja saudara...blog budak baru belajar:)

yana said...

sy btul2 nak tau ape beza bronchitis ngan bronchiectasis?
n yg mne satu lebih bahaya? i mean lebih cronic...

Shahibul Afzan Wahab said...

Salam yana...

Bronchitis adalah kedaaan di mana terjadinya inflammation pada bronchi,selalunya pesakit akan mengalami batuk2. punca kebiasaannya adalah merokok.

Bronchiectasis pulak adalah keadaan di mana terjadinya pengembangan bronchi yang kekal, biasanya disebabkan oleh inflammation atau infection(e.g pneumonia)

Yang mana lebih parah tu i'm not so sure la yana.mungkin yana boleh refer yang lebih arif,ok? :)

yana said...

ok..btw,thanx a lot!

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